Linux Ubuntu is characterized by being a light and simple system, highly recommended to take advantage of older PCs, this operating system has a wide variety of useful tools when it comes to working, playing, or entertaining.
Due to its low weight and a great repertoire of tools, it is one of the most famous Linux distributions, having a large number of users, is classified among the best, together with Fedora, Linux mint, it is also compared many times with Xubuntu, a version of Linux that consumes very little resources.
How to boot a USB with Linux Ubuntu?
Booting a USB memory is the process prior to the installation of an operating system since in this the respective programs are installed that will know how to identify the PC’s BIOS during the installation process, to boot a USB, we have several options.
If we start from a Linux system, a good alternative is to use Unetbootin, which is a multiplatform tool that has the objective of booting USB, having the ability to have the ISO images of different systems at the same time.
After installing the program and executing it, a gray window will appear, in the lower right a button will appear with 3 dots “…”, we will click and it will ask us to select an ISO image, we mark the Ubuntu Linux image and proceed to choose our USB memory and accept. If we have problems locating the file, we can search for them from the Terminal, with the “Locate and Find” commands.
If we are on Windows, whatever the version, we will use “Rufus”, a USB memory boot program, it also has a simple menu, in which we select the corresponding ISO, then the destination (our USB) and finally we accept.
How to install Ubuntu from Windows?
If we are on Windows and we want to switch to Ubuntu, or just add it as a secondary system, we must first create a USB memory with the system, there are many versions of Linux Ubuntu, and it will vary which is the best for you, depending on your needs.
Once the file is created on the USB, we must turn off our computer, it is important to know what brand is our motherboard or what brand is our laptop, this, in order to know which key opens the boot menu, usually it is “F8” or “F11“, we turn on our equipment, and press the start key several times, a menu should appear, normally it is blue, in which we will select the one with the name of our USB memory.
When we do this we will get another menu with several options, we must mark the one that says “Ubuntu”, and it will start the installation, it will ask us to select the language of our preference, we will also have to choose the layout of our keyboard, after this, it will ask us To know what type of installation we want, we must give “normal or complete installation”.
If we want to keep our Windows system we will have to mark “install together with Windows”, and we will be asked to know how much space we want to allocate to the application, it is important to know that Ubuntu offers great freedom to make modifications to the system, for this reason, it is important to know some of the most important commands of the system to handle it more easily.
How to install Ubuntu from another version of Linux?
If we already have another Linux distribution on our computer and we want to change it to Ubuntu, or we simply have an old version and we want to update, the process is similar to what we would do if we were on Windows.
When we are going to carry out this process, many people have the question of whether it is necessary to update the BIOS and how to do it, but in reality, this is not necessary, since Ubuntu can work in low-resource systems easily. Once we have our USB booted with Unetbootin, we will proceed to restart our computer and press the key to open the boot menu, once opened.
We select the USB drive that the system has and we open it with entering, the installer will open and we choose the language, keyboard, and time zone that correspond to us, we can choose between eliminating any other version of Linux or installing it in parallel, After this the program will finish the installation automatically, leaving you on the desktop, ready for use.
How to install XAMPP on Linux without complications
Having a full web server locally can be tricky, but there is a package that makes this process easy: XAMPP. To get this feature on your system, see how to install XAMPP on Linux below.
XAMPP is a platform-independent server, which mainly consists of MySQL database, Apache web server, and interpreters for scripting languages: PHP and Perl.
The name XAMPP comes from the abbreviation of X (for any of the different operating systems), Apache, MySQL, PHP, Perl.
It acts as a free web server, is easy to use, and is capable of interpreting dynamic pages. Currently, XAMPP is available for Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux, Solaris, and macOS X.
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For more details on how to configure and secure XAMPP, please visit this page.
Installing XAMPP on Linux
To install XAMPP on Linux, do the following:
Step 1. Open a terminal;
Step 2. Check if your system is 32-bit or 64-bit, for that, use the following command in the terminal:
Step 3. If you are using a 32-bit system, use the command below to download the program. If the link is out of date, go to this page and download the latest version and save it as xampp-installer.run:
wget https://ufpr.dl.sourceforge.net/project/xampp/XAMPP%20Linux/7.4.11/xampp-linux-7.4.11-0-installer.run -O xampp-installer.run
Step 4. If you are using a 64-bit system, use the command below to download the program. If the link is out of date, go to this page and download the latest version and save it as xampp-installer.run:
wget "https://sourceforge.net/projects/xampp/files/XAMPP%20Linux/7.4.22/xampp-linux-x64-7.4.22-0-installer.run/download" -O xampp-installer.run
wget "https://sourceforge.net/projects/xampp/files/XAMPP%20Linux/8.0.9/xampp-linux-x64-8.0.9-0-installer.run/download" -O xampp-installer.run
Step 5. Make the file executable with the command below;
chmod +x xampp-installer.run
Step 6. Start XAMPP installation, with the following command;
Step 7. When it appears, follow the steps of the installation and configuration wizard:
Step 8. If your current graphical environment supports and is 32 bits, create a launcher for the program, executing the command below;
echo -e '[Desktop Entry]\n Version=1.0\n Name=xampp\n Exec=gksudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux.run\n Icon=/opt/lampp/icons/world1.png\n Type=Application\n Categories=Application' | sudo tee /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop
Step 9. If your current graphical environment supports and is 64 bits, create a launcher for the program, executing the command below;
echo -e '[Desktop Entry]\n Version=1.0\n Name=xampp\n Exec=gksudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux-x64.run\n Icon=/opt/lampp/icons/world1.png\n Type=Application\n Categories=Application' | sudo tee /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop
Step 10. For the shortcut to work correctly, install GKSU with the command below. If your distribution is not Debian-derived, look for the program in their package manager and install it;
sudo apt-get install gksu
Ready! Now, when you want to start the program, type sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux.run(32-bit) or sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux-x64.run(64-bit) or into a terminal, followed by the TAB key.
If your distribution supports it, put the shortcut on your desktop using the system file manager or the command below, and use it to start the program.
sudo chmod +x /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop
cp /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop ~/Área\ de\ Trabalho/
If your system is in English, use this command to copy the shortcut to your desktop:
cp /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop ~/Desktop
For more details on this task, see this tutorial:
How to add application shortcuts to the Unity desktop
If you like, you can also use the system file manager to run the program, just by opening its folder and clicking on its executable.
Administering, verifying, and uninstalling XAMPP
To Administer, verify, and uninstall XAMPP on Linux, do the following:
Step 1. Open a terminal;
Step 2. If you want to start XAMPP through the terminal, use this command:
sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start
Step 3. Or simply use the program’s graphical interface to start or stop the web server. To run it, use the shortcuts created, or simply type the command sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux.runon 32-bit sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux-x64.runsystems or , on 64-bit systems;
Step 4. To verify that the webserver is running, enter the following address into a browser:
Step 5. If the installation worked, this page will appear:
Ready! You now have a web server on your system. But if you prefer LAMP, take a look at this tutorial:
Install LAMP on Linux and have a web server on your PC
Managing XAMPP via Terminal on Linux
To manage all XAMPP services via the terminal, do the following:
To start all xampp services, use the following command in the terminal.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp start
To start Apache only, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp startapache
To start just the Proftpd FTP server, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp startftp
To start the MySQL database server only:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp startmysql
To stop all xampp services, use the following command in the terminal.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stop
To stop Apache only, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stopapache
To stop only the Proftpd FTP server, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stopftp
To stop just the MySQL database server:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stopmysql
To restart all xampp services, use the following command in the terminal.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp restart
And for other commands, you can check the xampp help section by running the following.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp --help
How to remove XAMPP on Linux
If you need to uninstall XAMPP from your system, do the following:
Step 1. Open a terminal;
Step 2. Uninstall the program by executing the following commands;
sudo /opt/lampp/lampp stop
sudo rm -rf /opt/lampp
Things To Do After Installing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Xenial Xerus
Perform System Updates & Upgrades
$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y
Install Ubuntu Restricted Extras For Media Codec
$ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
Add Canonical Partners in Software Repository
go to Software & Updates -> move to the Other Software tab -> check the Canonical Partners option, then enter the password -> Close -> Reload
Install GIMP (for image editing needs)
$ sudo apt install gimp -y
Install Uget (download manager)
$ sudo apt install uget -y
Install BleachBit (application to clean cache, cookies, temporary files, logs, junk, etc.)
$ sudo apt install bleachbit -y
Install Video Player Application (choose one)
$ sudo apt install vlc
$ sudo apt install smplayer
Install GDebi Package Manager
$ sudo apt install gdebi
Fix (afraid there will be a problem when updating and installing the above application)
$ sudo apt-get install -f
Automatically clean junk that your Linux doesn’t need
$ sudo apt clean
$ sudo apt autoremove
Learn Linux Commands For Beginner to Advanced
When you want to learn to deepen Linux, you will know the terms Command Line, Text Base, Terminal, or Shell, they are all the same and it will be discussed here in the future, I will call it Terminal or Linux commands.
Here we will learn basic commands that are often used in Linux so you will often use the keyboard and all commands must be typed such as creating folders, copying files, deleting files, and even installing applications using commands that must be typed and then there are still much more can be done using commands in Linux.
WHY NEED TO LEARN LINUX COMMANDS?
If you want to deepen Linux, you must master the Linux command/command line because by using the Linux command/command line, more features can be accessed and more power full because the Linux interface used to use the command line.
Although Linux already has a GUI/graphics, learning Linux Commands/command lines is very necessary if you want to deepen your learning of Linux, this is because GUI applications only provide limited functions and are only intended for laypeople, while administrator users or technicians need full control over Linux machines. , full Linux control can only be accessed via the Linux command/command-line interface either through the shell or terminal emulator.
WHAT IS THE LINUX COMMAND / LINUX COMMAND LINE
Basically, the Linux command is an application, it’s just that this application does not have a graphical display and only has a text-based display. by many people better known as the Linux command or Linux command.
LINUX COMMAND CASE SENSITIVE
when typing Linux commands make sure you use lowercase letters because all basic Linux commands use lowercase letters. The reason is that Linux is case sensitive where uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different, not only in typing commands but in file naming as well. Uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different so be careful when you create filenames.
AUTOCOMPLETE FEATURE ON LINUX TERMINAL
When you type a Linux command in a Linux terminal, you don’t have to write it down completely, you can take advantage of the auto-complete feature to speed up writing Linux commands on a Linux terminal. 2x then Linux will give suggestions/choices of Linux commands that you will use.
In the example above, I type apt then I press the TAB key 2x then Linux will suggest a list of Linux commands starting with apt, this auto-complete feature can also be used to remember commands that you forget to remember just by typing the first few characters of the command you made forget to remember.
Sometimes the autocomplete feature doesn’t run/work as it should.
HOW TO START LEARNING LINUX COMMANDS
To enter the terminal you need to open the terminal application in the menu select accessories then click Terminal. So in the future, you will use this method to follow every Linux command guide here.
- When I write an example Linux command will always start with a hash sign # and dollar $, what does that mean?
- The hash sign # on the Linux terminal indicates that you are using the root user while the dollar signs $ indicates that the user you are currently using is a normal user/not a root user.
- When I write a command in the tutorial the hash mark # means the command must be run using the root user, if you want to run from a normal user ( $ ) then add sudo. For example, the command $ sudo apt-get update is the
- same as # apt-get update
- while the dollar sign $ it means that the command is executed by the normal user (not root), for example, $ ls -la
sudo means that you want to run the command from the normal user but use root privileges
BASIC LINUX COMMANDS (LINUX COMMAND ESSENTIAL)
Linux basic commands or Linux command essential is a console-based Linux application that is included by all Linux distributions as a standard console application that functions as a tool for navigating and managing the system.
So without installing this console application, there must be in every distribution, so you are obliged to memorize these basic Linux commands as the basic capital to be able to operate Linux through the terminal or shell.
ADVANCED AND INTERMEDIATE LINUX COMMANDS
Although in this chapter we still use basic Linux commands, the use of these commands requires a deep understanding of the concept of making user permissions settings and files very strict.
Why is Linux resistant to malware/virus attacks? – The answer is because Linux applies an extra strict system of setting file access rights to users so that important system files can only be accessed and modified by the root user. So please pay attention when applying for user permissions and file attributes to Linux that you manage, because giving permissions to important files unwisely will weaken your Linux defenses.
LINUX COMMAND NETWORK SETTINGS/NETWORK
Although there is already a GUI tool available for managing networks (setting up wifi and lan) but it doesn’t hurt you to learn to manage a Linux network using a Linux terminal/command. This chapter will be very useful when you are troubleshooting/repairing or setting up a server that is accessed without a GUI.
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