When you want to learn to deepen Linux, you will know the terms Command Line, Text Base, Terminal, or Shell, they are all the same and it will be discussed here in the future, I will call it Terminal or Linux commands.
Here we will learn basic commands that are often used in Linux so you will often use the keyboard and all commands must be typed such as creating folders, copying files, deleting files, and even installing applications using commands that must be typed and then there are still much more can be done using commands in Linux.
WHY NEED TO LEARN LINUX COMMANDS?
If you want to deepen Linux, you must master the Linux command/command line because by using the Linux command/command line, more features can be accessed and more power full because the Linux interface used to use the command line.
Although Linux already has a GUI/graphics, learning Linux Commands/command lines is very necessary if you want to deepen your learning of Linux, this is because GUI applications only provide limited functions and are only intended for laypeople, while administrator users or technicians need full control over Linux machines. , full Linux control can only be accessed via the Linux command/command-line interface either through the shell or terminal emulator.
WHAT IS THE LINUX COMMAND / LINUX COMMAND LINE
Basically, the Linux command is an application, it’s just that this application does not have a graphical display and only has a text-based display. by many people better known as the Linux command or Linux command.
LINUX COMMAND CASE SENSITIVE
when typing Linux commands make sure you use lowercase letters because all basic Linux commands use lowercase letters. The reason is that Linux is case sensitive where uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different, not only in typing commands but in file naming as well. Uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different so be careful when you create filenames.
AUTOCOMPLETE FEATURE ON LINUX TERMINAL
When you type a Linux command in a Linux terminal, you don’t have to write it down completely, you can take advantage of the auto-complete feature to speed up writing Linux commands on a Linux terminal. 2x then Linux will give suggestions/choices of Linux commands that you will use.
In the example above, I type apt then I press the TAB key 2x then Linux will suggest a list of Linux commands starting with apt, this auto-complete feature can also be used to remember commands that you forget to remember just by typing the first few characters of the command you made forget to remember.
Sometimes the autocomplete feature doesn’t run/work as it should.
HOW TO START LEARNING LINUX COMMANDS
To enter the terminal you need to open the terminal application in the menu select accessories then click Terminal. So in the future, you will use this method to follow every Linux command guide here.
- When I write an example Linux command will always start with a hash sign # and dollar $, what does that mean?
- The hash sign # on the Linux terminal indicates that you are using the root user while the dollar signs $ indicates that the user you are currently using is a normal user/not a root user.
- When I write a command in the tutorial the hash mark # means the command must be run using the root user, if you want to run from a normal user ( $ ) then add sudo. For example, the command $ sudo apt-get update is the
- same as # apt-get update
- while the dollar sign $ it means that the command is executed by the normal user (not root), for example, $ ls -la
sudo means that you want to run the command from the normal user but use root privileges
BASIC LINUX COMMANDS (LINUX COMMAND ESSENTIAL)
Linux basic commands or Linux command essential is a console-based Linux application that is included by all Linux distributions as a standard console application that functions as a tool for navigating and managing the system.
So without installing this console application, there must be in every distribution, so you are obliged to memorize these basic Linux commands as the basic capital to be able to operate Linux through the terminal or shell.
ADVANCED AND INTERMEDIATE LINUX COMMANDS
Although in this chapter we still use basic Linux commands, the use of these commands requires a deep understanding of the concept of making user permissions settings and files very strict.
Why is Linux resistant to malware/virus attacks? – The answer is because Linux applies an extra strict system of setting file access rights to users so that important system files can only be accessed and modified by the root user. So please pay attention when applying for user permissions and file attributes to Linux that you manage, because giving permissions to important files unwisely will weaken your Linux defenses.
LINUX COMMAND NETWORK SETTINGS/NETWORK
Although there is already a GUI tool available for managing networks (setting up wifi and lan) but it doesn’t hurt you to learn to manage a Linux network using a Linux terminal/command. This chapter will be very useful when you are troubleshooting/repairing or setting up a server that is accessed without a GUI.
Reminder, Ubuntu 21.04 (Impish Indri) Support Will End Soon
It’s no secret that the Ubuntu Linux distro is currently one of the most popular and widely used Linux distributions, especially for the general public and at home, all of this because this distribution is already quite popular for its ease of use, even though currently almost all common Linux distributions are already have the same user experience.
Now about Ubuntu, just a little bit of information, that Ubuntu 21.04 (Impish Indri) which was released in April 2021 will soon have the end of support in January 2022, in other words, there are only a few days before support is completely discontinued by Canonical.
Just like Windows, once terminated, there will be no more updates available and of course, this is quite dangerous, especially for security issues that might leak and endanger user data.
As a recommendation, if you are a user of 21.04 (Impish Indri) you can downgrade your system to version 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) which is the LTS version that has a very long support period, even End of Life itself until April 2030 later. Or if you don’t want to downgrade, you can wait until April 2022 where Canonical will release a new version, namely 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish).
So this brief information, hopefully useful.
Linux Kernel 5.16 Brings Significant Improvements to AMD CPUs
If you are a Linux user, especially if you are also an AMD user, then you must know that in Kernel 5.16 later, there will be a significant increase in AMD Ryzen CPU performance.
Based on the outstanding benchmarks, there is an increase of 28% from the Kernel 5.15 version that was present before, you can see the following benchmark results:
The benchmark above was carried out on a Lenovo ThinkPad T14s Gen2 laptop with Ryzen 7 PRO 5850U. the CPU 5850U is an octa-core processor based on the Zen 3 with 16 threads belonging to the AMD Cezanne APU lineup.
To see if the performance improvements also hold upon other Zen architectures, the Ryzen 5 5500U also did not escape the testing process, where there appeared to be a significant performance increase.
Reporting from Phoronix, Phoronix speculates that the noted performance gains may be due to a combination of CPU-specific optimizations:
“This improvement with Linux 5.16 was fascinating and came unexpectedly. Linux 5.16 has many new features including AMDGPU kernel driver improvements, but this Radeon Vega graphics boost came as a surprise as there wasn’t any announced optimization and the Vega graphics support at this stage is quite mature. It may also be a combination of CPU-related improvements with Linux 5.16.” Tulis Phoronix
Well, of course, this increase will be interesting for you Ryzen CPU users, but it’s not clear whether the upgrade will be present in all Ryzen series? or any other AMD series.
What do you think? comment below guys.
Via : Phoronix
How to download and install Linux Keylogger – Ubuntu Keylogger
Linux servers were very useful these days, just as it is very easy to register with Linux servers, and it is very easy to use them as well.
A Linux server is a server that is run by the Linux Open Source operating system. It offers businesses an affordable option to deliver content, applications, and services to their customers.
Since Linux is open source, users also benefit from a strong community of resources and followers. Each variation of Linux server is designed with different uses :
If you have a web server running, most likely CentOS® is running.
If your application serves thousands of users or even more, the solution you will be looking for will be designed to support this type of volumes such as Red Hat® Enterprise or Ubuntu® Server.
That would be overkill for your business needs as a turnkey Linux server would suffice for a specific purpose. The cloud infrastructure is typically Linux based.
Although we can use a Linux distribution for our server (eg Ubuntu) if we wish, Linux server distributions are slightly different from desktop distributions.
For example, server versions are usually much smaller than desktop versions for each administrator to customize to their liking, they usually do not have a graphical interface by default to save resources and have optimizations and features designed to offer the highest performance, greatest stability and the best possible security.
One of the better features of Linux is Keylogger because it helps us optimize and know what’s going on when we’re not at the computer.
You may want to know if anyone has used your computer while you were away and see what the classes were doing. How do I install a keylogger for Linux?
A keylogger is a hardware device or software that silently records every keyboard input (key) made by the user.
It can be used as a bidding tool to keep track of what you write and does not lose anything you have done or saved on your computer, but it should be noted that some bad people also use it for illegal purposes like malware spyware and sending this information to third parties.
How to install Keylogger for Linux? Step by step
Log keys is an advanced keylogger software for GNU / Linux systems only. Records all characters and function keys and stores them in a log file. It can be controlled through a Linux terminal.
Install and use Logkeys
- Open Terminal by pressing ctrl + alt + T and hit this command to install keylogs sudo apt-get install logkeys
- Then enter that Choose filename.log, this will create a file filename.log in your home directory where all keystrokes will be saved.
- You can enter any name in place of ‘filename’.
- Now enter the following command – sudo logkeys – start – output filename.log
- This starts the application and saves your keystrokes to the name of the .log file
- To view the filename.log file, you must first stop the application with the following logkeys sudo – kill command
- And finally, read the keystrokes recorded with logkeys cat filename.log
How to install LKL?
- Download the APK of LKL Linux.
- Unpack or compress the downloaded file.
- Open the terminal and the CD at location lkl.
- Now type ./configure and press ENTER to check that all the resources you need are available.
- If you get any error related to the C compiler, for example: “The C compiler cannot create the executable”.
- For a C compiler error: sudo apt install libc6-dev.
- Scribe ‘ Brand ‘ and press ENTER to compile the package.
- Scribe ‘ sudo install ‘ and press ENTER to install the program.
- Installation must be completed.
How to use it?
You can send an argument with the lkl command
- –h Support
- –JA register port 0 × 60 (keyboard)
- –b debug mode
- –k set the keymap file
- –or set the output file
- –m send logs to
- –t host name for sendmail. The default is localhost
- Example: lkl -l -k us_km -o log.file // use USA kb and put the logs in ‘log.file’
Did you manage to easily download Linux Keylogger?
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