When you want to learn to deepen Linux, you will know the terms Command Line, Text Base, Terminal, or Shell, they are all the same and it will be discussed here in the future, I will call it Terminal or Linux commands.
Here we will learn basic commands that are often used in Linux so you will often use the keyboard and all commands must be typed such as creating folders, copying files, deleting files, and even installing applications using commands that must be typed and then there are still much more can be done using commands in Linux.
WHY NEED TO LEARN LINUX COMMANDS?
If you want to deepen Linux, you must master the Linux command/command line because by using the Linux command/command line, more features can be accessed and more power full because the Linux interface used to use the command line.
Although Linux already has a GUI/graphics, learning Linux Commands/command lines is very necessary if you want to deepen your learning of Linux, this is because GUI applications only provide limited functions and are only intended for laypeople, while administrator users or technicians need full control over Linux machines. , full Linux control can only be accessed via the Linux command/command-line interface either through the shell or terminal emulator.
WHAT IS THE LINUX COMMAND / LINUX COMMAND LINE
Basically, the Linux command is an application, it’s just that this application does not have a graphical display and only has a text-based display. by many people better known as the Linux command or Linux command.
LINUX COMMAND CASE SENSITIVE
when typing Linux commands make sure you use lowercase letters because all basic Linux commands use lowercase letters. The reason is that Linux is case sensitive where uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different, not only in typing commands but in file naming as well. Uppercase and lowercase letters are considered different so be careful when you create filenames.
AUTOCOMPLETE FEATURE ON LINUX TERMINAL
When you type a Linux command in a Linux terminal, you don’t have to write it down completely, you can take advantage of the auto-complete feature to speed up writing Linux commands on a Linux terminal. 2x then Linux will give suggestions/choices of Linux commands that you will use.
In the example above, I type apt then I press the TAB key 2x then Linux will suggest a list of Linux commands starting with apt, this auto-complete feature can also be used to remember commands that you forget to remember just by typing the first few characters of the command you made forget to remember.
Sometimes the autocomplete feature doesn’t run/work as it should.
HOW TO START LEARNING LINUX COMMANDS
To enter the terminal you need to open the terminal application in the menu select accessories then click Terminal. So in the future, you will use this method to follow every Linux command guide here.
- When I write an example Linux command will always start with a hash sign # and dollar $, what does that mean?
- The hash sign # on the Linux terminal indicates that you are using the root user while the dollar signs $ indicates that the user you are currently using is a normal user/not a root user.
- When I write a command in the tutorial the hash mark # means the command must be run using the root user, if you want to run from a normal user ( $ ) then add sudo. For example, the command $ sudo apt-get update is the
- same as # apt-get update
- while the dollar sign $ it means that the command is executed by the normal user (not root), for example, $ ls -la
sudo means that you want to run the command from the normal user but use root privileges
BASIC LINUX COMMANDS (LINUX COMMAND ESSENTIAL)
Linux basic commands or Linux command essential is a console-based Linux application that is included by all Linux distributions as a standard console application that functions as a tool for navigating and managing the system.
So without installing this console application, there must be in every distribution, so you are obliged to memorize these basic Linux commands as the basic capital to be able to operate Linux through the terminal or shell.
ADVANCED AND INTERMEDIATE LINUX COMMANDS
Although in this chapter we still use basic Linux commands, the use of these commands requires a deep understanding of the concept of making user permissions settings and files very strict.
Why is Linux resistant to malware/virus attacks? – The answer is because Linux applies an extra strict system of setting file access rights to users so that important system files can only be accessed and modified by the root user. So please pay attention when applying for user permissions and file attributes to Linux that you manage, because giving permissions to important files unwisely will weaken your Linux defenses.
LINUX COMMAND NETWORK SETTINGS/NETWORK
Although there is already a GUI tool available for managing networks (setting up wifi and lan) but it doesn’t hurt you to learn to manage a Linux network using a Linux terminal/command. This chapter will be very useful when you are troubleshooting/repairing or setting up a server that is accessed without a GUI.
How to install XAMPP on Linux without complications
Having a full web server locally can be tricky, but there is a package that makes this process easy: XAMPP. To get this feature on your system, see how to install XAMPP on Linux below.
XAMPP is a platform-independent server, which mainly consists of MySQL database, Apache web server, and interpreters for scripting languages: PHP and Perl.
The name XAMPP comes from the abbreviation of X (for any of the different operating systems), Apache, MySQL, PHP, Perl.
It acts as a free web server, is easy to use, and is capable of interpreting dynamic pages. Currently, XAMPP is available for Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux, Solaris, and macOS X.
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For more details on how to configure and secure XAMPP, please visit this page.
Installing XAMPP on Linux
To install XAMPP on Linux, do the following:
Step 1. Open a terminal;
Step 2. Check if your system is 32-bit or 64-bit, for that, use the following command in the terminal:
Step 3. If you are using a 32-bit system, use the command below to download the program. If the link is out of date, go to this page and download the latest version and save it as xampp-installer.run:
wget https://ufpr.dl.sourceforge.net/project/xampp/XAMPP%20Linux/7.4.11/xampp-linux-7.4.11-0-installer.run -O xampp-installer.run
Step 4. If you are using a 64-bit system, use the command below to download the program. If the link is out of date, go to this page and download the latest version and save it as xampp-installer.run:
wget "https://sourceforge.net/projects/xampp/files/XAMPP%20Linux/7.4.22/xampp-linux-x64-7.4.22-0-installer.run/download" -O xampp-installer.run
wget "https://sourceforge.net/projects/xampp/files/XAMPP%20Linux/8.0.9/xampp-linux-x64-8.0.9-0-installer.run/download" -O xampp-installer.run
Step 5. Make the file executable with the command below;
chmod +x xampp-installer.run
Step 6. Start XAMPP installation, with the following command;
Step 7. When it appears, follow the steps of the installation and configuration wizard:
Step 8. If your current graphical environment supports and is 32 bits, create a launcher for the program, executing the command below;
echo -e '[Desktop Entry]\n Version=1.0\n Name=xampp\n Exec=gksudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux.run\n Icon=/opt/lampp/icons/world1.png\n Type=Application\n Categories=Application' | sudo tee /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop
Step 9. If your current graphical environment supports and is 64 bits, create a launcher for the program, executing the command below;
echo -e '[Desktop Entry]\n Version=1.0\n Name=xampp\n Exec=gksudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux-x64.run\n Icon=/opt/lampp/icons/world1.png\n Type=Application\n Categories=Application' | sudo tee /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop
Step 10. For the shortcut to work correctly, install GKSU with the command below. If your distribution is not Debian-derived, look for the program in their package manager and install it;
sudo apt-get install gksu
Ready! Now, when you want to start the program, type sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux.run(32-bit) or sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux-x64.run(64-bit) or into a terminal, followed by the TAB key.
If your distribution supports it, put the shortcut on your desktop using the system file manager or the command below, and use it to start the program.
sudo chmod +x /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop
cp /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop ~/Área\ de\ Trabalho/
If your system is in English, use this command to copy the shortcut to your desktop:
cp /usr/share/applications/xampp.desktop ~/Desktop
For more details on this task, see this tutorial:
How to add application shortcuts to the Unity desktop
If you like, you can also use the system file manager to run the program, just by opening its folder and clicking on its executable.
Administering, verifying, and uninstalling XAMPP
To Administer, verify, and uninstall XAMPP on Linux, do the following:
Step 1. Open a terminal;
Step 2. If you want to start XAMPP through the terminal, use this command:
sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start
Step 3. Or simply use the program’s graphical interface to start or stop the web server. To run it, use the shortcuts created, or simply type the command sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux.runon 32-bit sudo /opt/lampp/manager-linux-x64.runsystems or , on 64-bit systems;
Step 4. To verify that the webserver is running, enter the following address into a browser:
Step 5. If the installation worked, this page will appear:
Ready! You now have a web server on your system. But if you prefer LAMP, take a look at this tutorial:
Install LAMP on Linux and have a web server on your PC
Managing XAMPP via Terminal on Linux
To manage all XAMPP services via the terminal, do the following:
To start all xampp services, use the following command in the terminal.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp start
To start Apache only, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp startapache
To start just the Proftpd FTP server, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp startftp
To start the MySQL database server only:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp startmysql
To stop all xampp services, use the following command in the terminal.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stop
To stop Apache only, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stopapache
To stop only the Proftpd FTP server, use:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stopftp
To stop just the MySQL database server:
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp stopmysql
To restart all xampp services, use the following command in the terminal.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp restart
And for other commands, you can check the xampp help section by running the following.
sudo /opt/lampp/xampp --help
How to remove XAMPP on Linux
If you need to uninstall XAMPP from your system, do the following:
Step 1. Open a terminal;
Step 2. Uninstall the program by executing the following commands;
sudo /opt/lampp/lampp stop
sudo rm -rf /opt/lampp
Things To Do After Installing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Xenial Xerus
Perform System Updates & Upgrades
$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y
Install Ubuntu Restricted Extras For Media Codec
$ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
Add Canonical Partners in Software Repository
go to Software & Updates -> move to the Other Software tab -> check the Canonical Partners option, then enter the password -> Close -> Reload
Install GIMP (for image editing needs)
$ sudo apt install gimp -y
Install Uget (download manager)
$ sudo apt install uget -y
Install BleachBit (application to clean cache, cookies, temporary files, logs, junk, etc.)
$ sudo apt install bleachbit -y
Install Video Player Application (choose one)
$ sudo apt install vlc
$ sudo apt install smplayer
Install GDebi Package Manager
$ sudo apt install gdebi
Fix (afraid there will be a problem when updating and installing the above application)
$ sudo apt-get install -f
Automatically clean junk that your Linux doesn’t need
$ sudo apt clean
$ sudo apt autoremove
How to Make Your Own Server Using Linux
Building a server using Linux must be adjusted to your needs, for example, you want to create a database server, active directory, web server, proxy, FTP server, cloud data, monitoring server, and so on. So in this article, I will break it down into several Linux server topics so you can read and follow them without having to sequentially.
Of course, you must already be able to operate the Linux operating system because this section is for intermediate users so you must also be familiar with Linux commands besides that you must already understand the network settings on the router because this will be interrelated when you build a server.
Intention to learn is the most important thing and this article will guide you to become a reliable human resource in the Linux server field.
For those of you who want to learn to build servers using Linux, you can prepare the tools you need:
- Physical Server or Virtual Private Server
- For a cheap router, I suggest you use a Mikrotik router.
- It’s much easier if you already have your own lab network.
COST OF CREATING A LINUX SERVER
Of course, there must be a cost that you have to invest to make a Linux server especially if you want to make an actual server and these costs include purchasing:
- Server Computer
- Server Operating System
- Server / Data Center Storage Locations
- Server Rack
- Monthly electricity costs due to 24 hours live server
- Virtualization if you want to use virtualization
WANT TO LEARN TO BUILD A CHEAP LINUX SERVER? VPS IS THE ANSWER
Because the costs required to make their own servers are very expensive, IT companies took the initiative to make large servers and break them into servers with smaller resources (logically using virtualization/hypervisor) to be rented out to people who need servers at very low prices so that all people can have a server on the internet. The server that is rented is a virtual server or better known as a VPS (Virtual Private Server). You can use a Virtual Private Server or often called a VPS to reduce server costs.
WHAT IS A VPS?
A virtual server means that this server is not in physical form but is virtual by utilizing Hypervisor technology to split/split physical server resources into several virtual servers (Virtual Machines) with smaller specs (Virtual Hardware).
In 1 physical server with large resources/specs, it can be split into several virtual servers with smaller specs that have the same functions and features as normal physical computers, as illustrated below
With $7 -$14 you can already rent and have a VPS server which you can later install Linux and use as a Linux server.
You can also use a computer with good specifications in the campus lab, office, or at home to be used as a medium for learning to make Linux servers.
Servers are generally stored in a facility/place called a Data Center, inside the data center is equipped with stable electricity that never dies, an air conditioning or air conditioning system, and a stable internet network because the server must be accessible 24 hours non-stop. and can’t die.
The data center provides physical server rental and rack space rental services that are very much needed by companies that want to create backup servers (disaster recovery), colocation, or even main servers. data center with guaranteed safe and comfortable facilities :D.
The amount of the rental fee depends on the services provided by the data center manager such as public IP, internet speed, electricity, server manager licenses, etc. which will be used by the server you have.
If you have a physical computer in the data center (either rented or own), you can install the hypervisor on the physical server and make it a VPS and you can sell it ^_^.
LINUX SERVER OPERATING SYSTEM
Linux distributions have provided a special Linux version for the server, when you download the Linux ISO file there will be a choice of versions for Desktop / Workstation or Server, you can choose to download the server version.
The Enterprise Operating System means the paid version of the Linux server and currently, the most widely used is Linux from the RedHat and Suse companies. Linux Enterprise has long support for the operating system and has IT consulting partners to solve technical solutions.
So you need to set aside a budget in IT to buy an enterprise Linux operating system but it’s all worth the cost and service you will get.
This operating system means that it is open source and free to download and use, the difference with the enterprise version is that it is clear that this version does not have long support for the operating system and does not have a special consulting partner to address technical solutions. So everything is done jointly by you from installation, maintenance, and upgrades.
In this discussion of learning the Linux servers, we will use the community version of the Linux server (Community Edition) as the operating system. Creating your own server with Linux is easy and I will teach you all the processes in detail.
LINUX INSTALLATION FOR SERVER
The way and process of installing the Linux operating system depend on the type of server you are using (VPS or physical computer), so I will describe the installation process according to your needs, so choose one of the installation processes according to your needs.
- Creating Server Virtualization
- OpenStack Cloud
Linux Proxy Server
Creating a Proxy Server Using SQUID
Linux Server Monitoring
- Monitoring network with NAGIOS
- Monitoring devices with CACTI
Linux Web Server
- Creating a Webserver using Apache
- create a webserver using NGINX
Linux Database Server
- Creating Database Server using MySQL Database
- Creating Database Server using PostgreSQL Database
Creating a Linux Data Cloud Server
- Creating a File Server with SAMBA
- Create cloud data like google drive using OwnCloud
- Creating FTP Server
Creating a VOIP Server
- VOIP server using Elastix
Creating a Linux Mail Server
- Creating a Mail Server using Zimbra
DNS Servers on Linux
- Manage DNS using BIND
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