Postal codes are used to locate areas and places in a certain territory (country or city). Each geographic space has a code that identifies it, it can be made up of numbers, letters, or a combination of both. The existence of postal codes is of great importance. Among many things, they make it easy for email pieces to reach our doorstep.
Postal codes allow postal services, GPS navigation systems, and others to locate certain places quickly. The first country to introduce the postal code system was none other than The Federal Republic of Germany. This happened in the early 1960s. A couple of years later, the United States joined the list.
Almost all state postal services in the world use postal codes. However, there are countries where they do not exist, such as Ireland, and other territories whose geographical extension is very small that the introduction of the postal code in them is unnecessary.
As some know, the use of postal codes varies depending on the country. For example, in most of Europe, the code goes before the name of the place or city, whereas in Anglophone countries it usually goes after the name of the place.
But that is not all, these codes, in many cases, also serve to make phone calls to other cities or countries. If you have a friend or family member abroad and you do not know what the postal code of the country in which it is located is, you can search it in the following list.
List of postal codes of all countries
|Antigua and Barbuda||1268||Maldives||960|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||387||Nauru||674|
|Central African Republic||236||Papua New Guinea||675|
|Cote d’Ivoire||225||Republic of the Congo||242|
|Czechia||420||Saint Kitts and Nevis||1869|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||243||Saint Lucia||1758|
|Denmark||45||Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1784|
|Dominican Republic||1||Sao Tome and Principe||239|
|East Germany||37||Saudi Arabia||966|
|El Salvador||503||Sierra Leone||232|
|Federal Government of Germany||49||Somalia||252|
|Honduras||504||Trinidad and Tobago||868|
|Ireland||353||United Arab Emirates||971|
Windows 10 – All the information you need to know and tricks
Windows 10 is the latest operating system released by Microsoft for personal computers. In fact, it was the system that gave the PC name to home computers. After 5 long years of use, we wanted to make this super article where we explain the most important keys of the desktop operating system par excellence.
And it is not all, because we will make a selection of the most interesting tutorials that cover most of the problems, characteristics, and peculiarities of the window operating system so that nothing escapes you from now on. Let’s start now because there is a lot of fabric to cut.
Windows: the PC’s operating system
Windows is the name given by the Microsoft company, based in Redmond (USA), to its software package for personal computers, smartphones, and servers. We are indeed talking about a software package, although we normally call it an operating system, technically it is not.
Windows desktop systems are mounted on the kernel called Windows NT, it would be the same as the Unix / Linux kernel. On it, a large ecosystem of programs is executed providing all the functionalities to the user.
A brief review of the history
Microsoft’s journey does not start directly from Windows, but this was the predecessor of the emblematic MS-DOS system launched for the first time in 1982, operating directly on a command console with the first Intel processors.
MS-DOS became Windows in 1985, thanks to the introduction of a window-based graphical user interface (GUI). This first graphical extension was called Windows 1.0 and the truth is that its functions were a mere graphical version of MS-DOS. In 1987 Windows 2.0 was released, and in version 2.03 the system allowed windows that overlapped one another. Imagine how basic everything was then, that Apple denounced Microsoft for plagiarizing this system of overlapping windows. The first stage ends with Windows 3.0 and its update to 3.1 in 1992, where it already became a multitasking system and was also distributed to the general public.
The new era of the general consumer system began in 1995 with the arrival of Windows 95. Not only was the graphical interface improved, but the current heavily modified kernel and operating system were implemented on Windows NT. This system became 32-bit with preemptive multitasking instead of the 16-bit and cooperative multitasking of MS-DOS. This system implemented a taskbar, start button and Plug and Play, something new for the time.
Windows 98 was next, of course, released in 1998. It was a worse conceived system than 95, for which many users criticized it harshly. 2 years later Windows ME was released, the general consumer version of Windows 2000 oriented to servers, a system that improved in all aspects to 98.
And so we came to the era of Windows XP in 2001, a system built on top of Windows NT with two versions, Home and Professional, which was much more secure. The usability was similar to that of previous systems, although it was greatly improved in the multimedia section. Windows Vista was the 2007 successor, a very different system in appearance, and with versions in 32 and 64 bits, the new era said presently. It implemented many improvements in its usability, although it was also widely criticized for its number of errors, instability, and poor compatibility with XP programs. So many did not take the step towards it, staying with Windows XP in its 64-bit version.
To the rescue came Windows 7, a system that was much more popular. Again we had wide application compatibility, with many new functions such as multi-touch support or the new management of network user accounts with the HomeGroup that has been maintained until recently. It was much faster and less resource consuming than Vista, being a worthy successor to Windows XP.
And what about Windows 8 and 8.1? It is still widely used, although many of us did not like that great orientation to tablets and touch devices. We lost that good classic start menu for one that took up the full screen, although with it the 64-bit architecture was practically predominant. In 8.1, the more purist users were again pleased by returning the home button.
So we come to Windows 10, released on July 29, 2015. The start menu is back, and a new update policy to become the most stable and secure system ever built by Microsoft (seriously). New multimedia applications and the Microsoft Edge browser were created. Along with them, the Cortana voice assistant, the one that we have never used in life, and the possibility for users to upgrade for free from Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 to Windows 10.
Windows 10 technical requirements
Like any other system or program, Windows has hardware requirements to be installed. In fact, this system is less demanding than previous systems, due to its lower consumption of resources and being lighter. This is great for older and limited teams.
The minimum requirements are:
- Processor: 1 GHz frequency. Support for SSE2, PAE, and NX.
- RAM memory: 1 GB for 32 Bit versions and 2 GB for 64 Bit versions.
- Hard disk space: at least 16 GB for the 32 Bit version and 20 GB for the 64 Bit version.
- Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 or higher support with WDDM 1.0 driver
- Screen resolution : 800 x 600 pixels.
The recommended requirements are:
- Processor: Dual Core at 2 GHz, which supports SSE3 or higher.
- RAM memory: 4 GB or higher for 32 Bit and 64 Bit versions.
- Hard disk space: 50 GB or higher, for installing applications and updates.
- Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 10 or higher. For games, it is recommended to have a dedicated graphics card such as Nvidia GTX / RTX or AMD RX
- Screen resolution : 1024 x 768 pixels.
Most important functions and analysis
This version has been Microsoft’s final bet for its general consumer desktop system. A system that returned to the classic desktop of previous versions, although maintaining all the functionalities of the block system and a full menu version for “Tablet mode”. The interface is much more minimalist and simple than previous systems so the consumption of resources will be much lower.
The Activity Center of the system has been improved with successive updates, as well as the integration of Cortana, the voice assistant. Now they are much more complete and better-implemented elements, with a separate search function from the assistant. Similarly, applications such as the video player, calculator, Paint have undergone a profound renovation, including the Windows Edge browser, although Explorer remains the second option. Microsoft Store has remained almost unchanged, although increasingly complete. It has also made a full-fledged integration with Xbox Live, the ecosystem of its console that we will now also have on our Windows.
The system configuration also underwent changes, installing a new Smartphone-type application that includes most of the options of the mythical Control Panel, which of course is still available. Something positive is that the commands have remained unchanged in this version, adding the new Power Shell. It is a more advanced command-line version than CMD, with many more functions and similar to the Linux terminal.
With regard to security, we have a much more efficient and powerful Windows Defender that has been updated in a very correct way and that today, there is no need to install independent antivirus. The system has also been adapted to the new biometric authentication systems with Windows Hello, with facial recognition or fingerprint sensor.
With regard to virtualization, we are also in luck, because the Hypervisor Hyper-V is not only present in Windows Servers, but also in Windows 10 Pro and Enterprise to create and run virtual machines. In fact, in the last update, a virtualized Windows has been included on the main system, it is called SandBox and we can activate it in the Pro and Enterprise versions.
There is still much more to see, although we will develop it in the following sections.
Windows 10 editions that exist
In total, we have a whopping 12 editions of Windows 10 available to the user, all of them with independent licenses, although many with similar functionalities. They are as follows:
|Home – It is the basic version of Windows, with the most relevant functions for a normal user.|
|Pro For Workstation|
|Windows 10 S|
|N and KN Versions|
Updates and versions policy
There are two upgrade methods for the system. The Preview Branch is for Windows Insider members, where new versions of Windows arrive in beta to subscribers to perform the first tests. Here we can choose the fast ring or the slow ring, to have this beta sooner or later.
The second way is normal or Current Branch for normal users using Windows Update or Upgrade Tool application. This method has several types of updates:
- Feature Updates: Appear semi-annually and is a package that profoundly modifies the system’s performance. They add or remove functions and review the security of the system.
- Quality Updates – These are the normal updates and patches that are released at any time.
- Driver and Product Updates: Store, Office, and device driver programs can also be updated by Windows Update.
After these 5 years of using Windows 10, the system has gone through different versions, not to be confused with editions. They correspond to all released feature updates. They are 1507, 1511, 1607, 1703, 1703, 1709, 1803, 1809 and 1903.
This is the basic thing you should know how to do
After the basic notions of the system, we are going to delve a little more into the essential aspects of the operating system, such as the management of its Installation, security, or user management.
Windows defender and security
One of the most important improvements that this version of Windows brought and that has been evolving is Windows Defender. It is the system’s native software for detecting viruses, spyware, and now also ransomware and security in the OneDrive cloud.
Here we leave very interesting tutorials to deactivate it, update it, how it works, and much more.
Where to buy Windows 10
We have seen that Windows is available in a lot of distributions, although for most users it will be reduced to two: the Home and the Pro, the first cheaper and the second more expensive. As long as we are curious and want to get a little extra, we recommend the Pro version.
On the net, there are many places to buy cheap Windows 10 licenses. Keep in mind that an unlicensed Windows will only be limited in the customization of its visual theme. Absolutely everything else will be available.
We are going to install Windows 10 … or better two
We do not need a computer scientist to be able to install Windows 10 on our PC, since the system gives us all the necessary tools to do so. We just need a flash drive larger than 8GB, the internet, and our tutorials.
At present, we always recommend installing Windows with drives in GPT format, although SATA and M.2 SSDs are already preconfigured with this partition system. A common error is the one we deal with in the following tutorial:
What’s more, we can add a second or third Windows to our PC on a new hard drive or partition. We just have to make sure that it appears during startup to use it.
The management of users of the system is also part of our basic tasks. It is not only about creating an account and nothing else, we suggest you know how to manage user credentials and how to manage parental control of the system with your email account.
Of course, we are never exempt from errors, so here is the solution for some of the most common related to users.
Network and internet in Windows
Although it is a swampy ground for many, controlling all the topics related to networks in Windows will help us a lot when it comes to browsing safely and quickly. And don’t worry, because changing the IP address, activating Bluetooth, or using SSH and Telnet is not complicated if you know how to do it right.
We can also share resources over the network, for example, files, printers, or even the computer screen with Miracast.
Customizing our work environment is important to feel comfortable with the system and better spend all those hours that we are going to be in front of it. Here we give you a customization guide with the options of the system itself and other interesting applications, which beware, they are not harmful to the system.
Do you really know how to navigate Windows? Let’s see it
If you think that you can only move around Windows with a mouse by clicking, you are far from knowing what the real power of the system is. Tricks or not, commands and key combinations are an important part of the system so check out these tutorials.
Maintenance, Safe Mode, and Configuration Tasks
Like anything else, an operating system also needs some maintenance, and we must carry it out so that everything works perfectly. In this way, you will avoid 100% formatting and possible problems.
And here we leave the configuration tutorials most sought after by users:
Delving into the system
In addition to the basic tasks seen above, we can still go further, something that all the curious can do with the tutorials that we have been preparing during this time. We discussed feature installation, bug fixes, performance improvements, storage management, etc.
Most common errors in Windows 10
Like all operating systems, Windows is not without errors or problems that can crop up at any time. Have you ever come across any of these?
Create partitions, format and recover files
We can do all this from the operating system itself, either with the graphic interface or with the command console, thanks to a program as powerful as Diskpart. Let’s go a step beyond simple management with these tutorials.
We can do all this with both hard drives and flash storage drives. Sometimes the unit usually gives errors when formatted, but we also have the solution for this.
Install or uninstall system features
Are you a purist and need a Movie Maker in your life? In this section, we will see how to recover those programs that have been forgotten by Windows and others that will be very useful to work on it.
Useful tricks for Windows 10
Here we will see actions that, by not focusing on any specific topic, we can say are little tricks on the system. At least they will help us to know a little more about how our Windows works.
Advanced internal programs or processes that we must know
You already know that Windows is a huge ecosystem of programs that work on the Windows NT kernel. In it, there are many internal applications that work in the background on the computer to manage our hardware.
Many of these will be accessible through commands with the run tool (Windows + R) or directly from the Command Prompt. Let’s see the most important ones.
The command list in Windows 10
We have taken the trouble to compile all the most useful commands of this operating system, along with an explanation of what they do on our system.
How about Windows 10?
For us it is the definitive Microsoft system, it must be recognized that its stability, functions, and applications have improved a lot from previous versions. The new update policy is working well except at the time of updating itself, which is not usually without errors.
For now, the support that Microsoft offers for Windows has a limit in 2025, at least that is the information it currently provides. It also says that it will be the last system. In any case, we do not know if all this will be fulfilled or not, we already know how these are from Microsoft.
What operating system is your favorite? And what do you think is the best Windows ever?
How To Know If Your iPhone Is Still Under Warranty
It is always essential to know the warranty of your iPhone, especially if the device needs repair because it is damaged. The warranty period depends on several factors: first, the laws of each country. In Spain and other countries, the minimum time limit is 2 years, the first year is related to the manufacturer itself and the second year is associated with the store where the product is sold.
Another important factor is whether you have any additional insurance, such as Apple Care or any other third-party insurance. Anyway, here, we will teach you how to know how long the iPhone warranty lasts directly from Apple.
Find Out How Much Warranty Time Your iPhone Has Left.
As explained above, in countries like Spain, the iPhone’s warranty period is two years from the date of purchase. Let’s take the example of buying a device from a phone company: In this case, Apple will be responsible for all issues related to warranty items in the first year, and your company/operator will be responsible for the second year.
If you buy an iPhone from Apple stores, the Apple Store, the warranty period is two years directly from the manufacturer.
Although we will focus on the two simplest methods, there are several ways to check the remaining warranty period of the iPhone. The first is on the device itself. If you go to “Settings“> “General“> “Information“, you will see some information about the iPhone, such as the name, the software version, the serial number and, of course, the warranty expiration date.
You might be surprised to find out that the warranty period listed in “Settings” is one year, but don’t worry. The information in this section is the same for everyone, but Apple will adapt to the laws of each country.
So if you bought the phone less than a year ago and said it would expire next year, then they will really tell you when your engagement to Apple will end. If you bought a terminal in the physical Apple store, you must have a guarantee in the second year in the same store.
The second way to verify the warranty is through the Apple website, where you must enter the serial number of the device found in ” Settings“> “General“> “Information“.
Here, we can find complete information about the guarantee, especially if we also have Apple Care or Apple Care + insurance, in this case, the warranty can be added a few more years depending on the option you choose when purchasing this extra.
When your device suffers a particular type of factory damage or software problems that are not caused by its use, the iPhone will be covered by the warranty. In this case, Apple generally repairs the device for free, and sometimes it may even offer you a replacement device.
In case of accidental damage, depending on the situation, you will not be covered by the guarantee. However, Apple usually offers you a repair discount if you have contracted Apple Care. It should also be noted that the above insurance can be signed within 2 months after the purchase of the terminal, not later.
10 Privacy Settings You Should Apply On Your iPhone To Be Safe
Some default iPhone settings are designed to record our location and the times of day when we do certain activities. Everyone should have the possibility to know how to have full control of their privacy and security, especially in times like these.
To understand this in more detail and learn ways to improve your privacy and security even further on iOS, we’ve compiled some settings that you need to adjust as soon as possible to make your iOS device more secure.
Find My iPhone
The Find My iPhone tool lets you be forewarned in case you ever lose your device. To do this, go to Settings, then iCloud and select Find My iPhone to activate it.
Delete Content After 10 Failed Attempts
If someone tries to unlock the phone with an incorrect password 10 times, all the data on the iPhone is erased. Just scroll down on that Settings page and turn on data wipe.
Avoid Tracking In Safari.
The Safari web browser also stores some user browsing data, but we can configure it to stop doing so. In the Settings> Safari> Privacy and security section, activate the option that says “Do not track”. With this option, we can also block pop-up windows.
Alphanumeric Unlock Code
Traditional four digits are not 100% secure or even six-digit password combination. You can create a full password with letters, numbers and characters for added protection.
Diagnostic And Usage Data
You can deactivate the Diagnostics and usage options from General> Privacy> Diagnostics and usage. Choose the Do not send option and this way you will not send your data to Apple.
It is possible to limit the times that an app asks our iPhone for the exact location. Before iOS 13, many apps were permanently requiring our location if we did nothing about it. Now they can only if we give permission the first time we use the app.
Advertisements can track everything you are looking for and thus offer us related advertising. You have to go to Settings> Privacy> Advertising and activate the option “Limit monitoring”.
Block Bluetooth in Some Apps
Some companies and establishments try to take advantage of Bluetooth technology to send us advertising. It is only necessary not to give permission when trying to access our devices or simply disable the connection if you are not using it.
Block Phone Spam
In the phone app, there is an option that allows you to mute calls from unknown numbers. You will be able to create a kind of “blacklist” with unwanted numbers.
In the Settings> iTunes & App Store app, you can disable the suggestion of applications; in this way, we will avoid continuous spam from Apple recommending applications (based on our tastes).
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